Librosa mel spectrogram

Deep Learning on audio data often requires a heavy preprocessing step. While some models run on raw audio signals, others expect a time-frequency presentation as input. Preprocessing is often done as a separate step, before model training, with tools like librosa or Essentia.

But, as you start working with larger datasets, this workflow presents a challenge. Anytime you change parameters, like sample-rate or FFT-size, you need to process the whole dataset again before you can resume training. And that means waiting. Even when parallelized onto available CPU-cores, preprocessing can take a long time. Plus, you need to consider how to store and access files for different parameters. This undoubtedly wastes disk space and mental resources and can quickly become a headache.

Does any of this sound familiar? I recently set up an efficient audio-data pipeline which enables me to load audio from file paths into models on-demand.

And I wanted to use the same data pipeline for spectrogram-based models, too. In this post, I want to share with you:. A popular feature representation across audio-domains in Deep Learning applications is the mel-spectrogram. The main difference to a standard spectrogram is that frequencies are projected onto the mel-scalewhere the perceived distance of pitches equals the distance of mel-frequencies. This is inspired by how we hear. So, a more precise term would be log-magnitude mel-scaled spectrogram.

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But because this is quite a mouthful, most people call it log-mel-spectrogram or mel-spectrogram for short. So, how can you transform your raw audio signals into mel-spectrograms? The short-time Fourier transform STFT divides a long signal into shorter segments, often called framesand computes the spectrum for each frame.

The frames typically overlap to minimize data-loss at the edges. Joining the spectra for each frame creates the spectrogram. Some parameters you need to set are:.

The STFT from the previous step returns a tensor of complex values where the real part is the magnitude and the imaginary part is the phase.

Use tf. We can now plot the magnitude-spectrogram. The second subplot is scaled with librosa. So, technically, it's a log-magnitude power-spectrogram.

More about that in step 5. Transforming standard spectrograms to mel-spectrograms involves warping frequencies to the mel-scale and combining FFT bins to mel-frequency bins.

TensorFlow makes this transformation easy. You can create a mel-filterbank which warps linear-scale spectrograms to the mel-scale with tf. You only need to set a few parameters:. Multiply the squared magnitude-spectrograms with the mel-filterbank and you get mel-scaled power-spectrograms. We perceive changes in loudness logarithmically. One way to do that would be taking the log of the mel-spectrograms.

But that might get you into trouble because log 0 is undefined. Instead, you want to convert the magnitudes to decibel dB units in a numerically stable way. Now here comes the fun part. Combining the individual steps into a custom preprocessing layer allows you to feed raw audio to your network and compute mel-spectrograms on-the-fly on your GPU.Read this short post if you want to be like Neo and know all about the Mel Spectrogram!

Ho maybe not all, but at least a little. For the tl;dr and full code, go here. Mel: Sure. Me: Thanks. So Mel, when we first met, you were quite the enigma to me. Mel: Really? Me: You are composed of two concepts that their whole purpose is to make abstract notions accessible to humans - the Mel Scale and Spectrogram - yet you yourself were quite difficult for me, a human, to understand.

Mel: Is there a point to this one sided speech? Me: And do you know what bothered me even more? I heard through the grapevine that you are quite the buzzz in DSP Digital Signal Processingyet I found very little intuitive information about you online.

Mel: Should I feel bad for you? Mel: Gee. Hope more people will get me now. Me: With pleasure my friend. I think we can talk about what are your core elements, and then show some nice tricks using the librosa package on python. I love librosa! It can generate me with one line of code! Me: Wonderful! What do you think? Visualizing sound is kind of a trippy concept.

There are some mesmerising ways to do that, and also more mathematical ones, which we will explore in this post. When we talk about soundwe generally talk about a sequence of vibrations in varying pressure strengths, so to visualize sound kinda means to visualize air waves.

But this is just a two dimensional representation of this complex and rich whale song! Another mathematical representation of sound is the Fourier Transform. Without going into too many details watch this educational video for a comprehensible explanationFourier Transform is a function that gets a signal in the time domain as input, and outputs its decomposition into frequencies.

Now this is what we call a Spectrogram! The Mel Scalemathematically speaking, is the result of some non-linear transformation of the frequency scale. In contrast to Hz scale, where the difference between and Hz is obvious, whereas the difference between and Hz is barely noticeable. Luckily, someone computed this non-linear transformation for us, and all we need to do to apply it is use the appropriate command from librosa.

But what does this give us? It partitions the Hz scale into bins, and transforms each bin into a corresponding bin in the Mel Scale, using a overlapping triangular filters.

Now what does this give us? Now we can take the amplitude of one time window, compute the dot product with mel to perform the transformation, and get a visualization of the sound in this new frequency scale. We know now what is a Spectrogram, and also what is the Mel Scale, so the Mel Spectrogram, is, rather surprisingly, a Spectrogram with the Mel Scale as its y axis. And this is how you generate a Mel Spectrogram with one line of code, and display it nicely using just 3 more:.

The Mel Spectrogram is the result of the following pipeline:. Now that we know Mel Spectrogram as well as Neo, what are we going to do with it? In the meanwhile, got any wild projects you are working on using the Mel Spectrogram?GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Have a question about this project?

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librosa mel spectrogram

Sign in to your account. I compute the mel spectrogram on a time-domain signal that has samples, like so:. For some reason it has one extra frame. This probably explains the discrepancy you're seeing. Right, I computed it incorrectly, got it now. Thanks again! Working backwards, say you have a maximum frame number T and that frames are left-aligned.

Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. New issue. Jump to bottom. Labels question. Copy link Quote reply. Can you please explain?

This comment has been minimized. Sign in to view. Thanks for that. Right, so it zero pads the whole of the signal at once? Not frame by frame? Just read the docs and got the second question clarified, thanks for your help! Out of curiosity, what's the advantage of using centered frames over left-aligned frames?

A few: Ease of conversion between frame indices and sample positions. If a frame is windowed, the relevant position is the center, not the left edge which contributes near 0 to the frame's information after windowing. If you then want to know where the center is for a left-aligned frame, you need to also know the frame length.

If it's centered, then the position is the same regardless of frame length. Consistency with variable-frame analyses, eg, CQT. This is basically the same point as above, but since every CQT basis has a different filter length, you can't get away with left-aligned frames at all.

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The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. And I have looked at this stack overflow post: Spectrograms generated using Librosa don't look consistent with Kaldi? Can someone tell me how to fix this code so that it properly displays and saves the mel-spectrogram to jpg file?

Learn more. Using Librosa to plot a mel-spectrogram Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 7 months ago. Active 2 years, 7 months ago. Viewed 9k times. I am having trouble creating a mel-spectrogram in librosa using a custom file path to my sound. However none of this helped me solve my issue.

But what is the Fourier Transform? A visual introduction.

Sreehari R Sreehari R 1 1 gold badge 9 9 silver badges 19 19 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Actually, this solution doesn't work for python3 because I can't download scikit. Can you please update your answer to make it python 3 compatible? I use scikits. If you don't mind, you can use it, or else read the wav Library. When I replace wavread with librosa. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name.

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librosa mel spectrogram

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I wanted to keep the most detail and quality from the audios, so that i could turn them back to audio without too much loss They are 80MB each. I tried using librosa. I now have spectrogram files and want to train a Generative Adversarial Network with them, so that I can generate new audios, but I don't want to do it if i wont be able to listen to the results later.

Yes, it is possible to recover most of the signal and estimate the phase with e. Its "fast" implementation for Python can be found in librosa.

Here's how you can use it:. The algorithm by default randomly initialises the phases and then iterates forward and inverse STFT operations to estimate the phases. It's just an example of course. As pointed out by PaulR, in your case you'd need to load the data from jpeg which is lossy!

The algorithm, especially the phase estimation, can be further improved thanks to advances in artificial neural networks. Here is one paper that discusses some enhancements. Learn more.

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Can I convert spectrograms generated with librosa back to audio? Ask Question. Asked 4 days ago. Active 4 days ago. Viewed 37 times.

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I converted some audio files to spectrograms and saved them to files using the following code: import os from matplotlib import pyplot as plt import librosa import librosa. Is it possible to turn them back to audio files?Documentation Help Center. The function treats columns of the input as individual channels.

The location corresponds to the center of each window. You can use this output syntax with any of the previous input syntaxes. Use the default settings to calculate the mel spectrogram for an entire audio file. Print the number of bandpass filters in the filter bank and the number of frames in the mel spectrogram. Calculate the mel spectrums of point windows with point overlap. Convert to the frequency domain using a point FFT.

Pass the frequency-domain representation through 64 half-overlapped triangular bandpass filters that span the range Call melSpectrogram again, this time with no output arguments so that you can visualize the mel spectrogram.

The input audio is a multichannel signal. If you call melSpectrogram with a multichannel input and with no output arguments, only the first channel is plotted. You can get the center frequencies of the filters and the time instants corresponding to the analysis windows as the second and third output arguments from melSpectrogram.

librosa mel spectrogram

Get the mel spectrogram, filter bank center frequencies, and analysis window time instants of a multichannel audio signal. Use the center frequencies and time instants to plot the mel spectrogram for each channel. Audio input, specified as a column vector or matrix.

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If specified as a matrix, the function treats columns as independent audio channels. Data Types: single double. Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments.

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Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1, Analysis window length in samples, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'WindowLength' and an integer in the range [2, size audioIn ,1 ]. Analysis window overlap length in samples, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'OverlapLength' and an integer in the range [0, WindowLength - 1 ].

Number of points used to calculate the DFT, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'FFTLength' and a positive integer greater than or equal to WindowLength.Transforms are common audio transforms. They can be chained together using torch. Default: 0. Default: torch.

Default: 2. Default: False. Default: None. Tensor — Tensor of audio of dimension …, time. This output depends on the maximum value in the input tensor, and so may return different values for an audio clip split into snippets vs. The power being the elementwise square of the magnitude. Default: 'power'. A reasonable number is Tensor — Input tensor before being converted to decibel scale.

This uses triangular filter banks. Default: Calculated from first input if None is given. This is not the textbook implementation, but is implemented here to give consistency with librosa. This output depends on the maximum value in the input spectrogram, and so may return different values for an audio clip split into snippets vs.

librosa mel spectrogram

Default: 'ortho'. Encode signal based on mu-law companding. For more info see the Wikipedia Entry. Tensor — A signal to be encoded.

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